A Proposition for the Cause of the Expanding Universe……

15 Jan

By Stephen P. Walker.



I was studying the latest results from Saul Perimeter and his team when I was struck by an idea.  I may be completely wrong but I have a mechanism which could explain the expanding universe and its acceleration, in which no ‘dark’ energy is required.  This is a provisional paper and I have yet to check the mathematics.

In this paper I will only present the theory.

An Alternate Interpretation of the Big Bang……

For the purpose of this exercise let us assume that the Big Bang, which started from a singularity, was actually an infinity of Big Bangs all beginning at a singularity.  During the first few millionths of a second our universe expanded pushing the surrounding Big Bangs away, establishing many other universes surrounding ours, each undergoing its own expansion.  We would be left with an infinite number of universes, try to imagine this structure as being the equivalent of a hand full of soap bubbles.

Our soap bubble universe, and those surrounding it, carried on expanding for approximately 0.5 billion years until the


Ultra-Deep Field Image

first light was emitted by the formation of the stars; our observable universe as featured in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image, which shows the very earliest structures  approximately 13.2 billion years ago.  If each soap bubble universe acted in the same manner, which ever universe you inhabit you will see the same observable universe as we do.  What this does provide us with is an amount of ‘dark’ space at the outer edges of your universe, until light was emitted and a the equivalent of a ‘hard shoulder’ surrounding the soap bubbles exists……

Life and Death of Stars……

We can postulate that the earliest structures, visible in the Hubble Space Telescope Ultra-Deep Field image became stars and may have burned for 10 billion years until their fuel was exhausted and they collapsed into black holes (observations which would not yet be seen due to the time and distances involved).  This may suggest that around

Remnants of a dying star

Remnants of a dying star

the perimeter of all of our soap bubble universes there exists a belt of black holes.  As more stars collapse to a singularity on the ‘hard shoulder’ and continue to form black holes, the stronger their tug on the space around them.  Could this be the cause of our expanding universe and an explanation for the acceleration as the belt gets thicker?

The End of Space and Time……..

The best predictions for the end of the universe follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics and as the universe ‘spreads’ leaving everything at an even temperature; this is sometimes referred to as the ‘big chill’.


A lot of work will be needed to establish whether this theory has any basis in reality, although, it seems to make sense upon first consideration.  Put simply, the black holes forming at the ‘edges’ of a soap bubble universe gradually increase, leading to the acceleration of the space in the centre being drawn toward it at an ever increasing rate.  As this is a 3 dimensional model, from inside of any universe it appears, just like when blowing up a balloon with the stars drawn on its surface, that all points in space are moving away from each other, which they are as they are dragged toward the edge…….

String theory has come up with an number far to large for the expansion/acceleration ration.  The variable ‘c’ is a popular candidate for applications surrounding the acceleration of the expansion, although, it was originally used by Einstein to demonstrate a static universe.  Dark energy and dark matter have always troubled me and this article presents a possible alternative but it will require a higher IQ then mine to establish if this theory could be correct.  I would like to hear any comments or suggestions…..?



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